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Dialects of the English language

Dialect [ˈdaɪəlekt] is a type of language that is used as a means of communication between people connected by the same territory (regional dialect / regiolect), nationality (ethnolect) or belonging to a particular social group (sociolect).

English does not have a central agency coordinating its development, which leads to the absence of a single language norm.

Dialects in the British Isles

In the UK, the accepted standard of the English language is the cultural dialect of South East England, the so-called «British Standard Pronunciation» (Received Pronunciation, abbreviated RP, traditionally used as a broadcast standard and considered the most prestigious of the British dialects.The spread of British normative pronunciation (also known as "BBC English") through the media has led to the retreat of many traditional dialects of England. pronunciation has led to the depletion of differences in grammar and vocabulary of dialects, in fact the differences in today's dialects are reduced to the existence of regional accents.

Within British normative pronunciation there are also some differences by social class, and some traits, although extremely common, are considered "non-standard" and are associated with lower-class speakers. An example of this is the omission of "h", which has historically been a feature of the lower classes of London English, especially Cockney, and can now be heard in local accents in most parts of England, but is still largely absent from broadcasting and among representatives high society.[1]

The English language of England can be divided into four main dialect regions: Southwest English, Southeast English, Midland English and Northern English. In each of these regions there are several local dialects: in the northern region there is a division between Yorkshire dialects and the Geordie dialect spoken in Northumbria around Newcastle, and Lancashire dialects with local urban dialects in Liverpool (Scouse) and Manchester (Mancunian). As the center of Danish occupation during the Viking invasions, northern English dialects, especially Yorkshire, retain Scandinavian features not found in other English varieties.[2]

Modern Scots is considered a separate language from English, but it has its origins in Early Northern Middle English but developed under the influence of other sources, especially Gaelic and Old Norse. The Scottish language itself has a number of regional dialects. In addition to Scottish, Scottish English includes varieties of standard English spoken in Scotland; most varieties have a Northern English accent with some Scottish influence.

Irish English is divided into Ulster English, a dialect of Northern Ireland heavily influenced by Scots, and various dialects of the Republic of Ireland.

North American English

North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. Most American and Canadian dialects of English do not omit the letter "r", which contrasts with the situation in England, where the omission of the letter "r" after vowels is considered standard.

1], 2] Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter (1996). English Accents and Dialects (3rd edition). Arnold Publishers.


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